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The journal is made available for applications to track changes to the volume.
The hard link feature allows different file names to directly refer to the same file contents.
NTFS is a journaling file system and uses the NTFS Log ($Log File) to record metadata changes to the volume.
It is a feature that FAT does not provide and critical for NTFS to ensure that its complex internal data structures will remain consistent in case of system crashes or data moves performed by the defragmentation API, and allow easy rollback of uncommitted changes to these critical data structures when the volume is remounted.
clusters, partly due to partition table limitations.
For example, using 64 KB clusters, the maximum size Windows XP NTFS volume is 256 TB minus 64 KB.
The NTFS file system has a limit of 1024 hard links on a file.
Alternate data streams allow more than one data stream to be associated with a filename (a fork), using the format "filename:streamname" (e.g., "text.txt:extrastream").
Operating system support is needed because there are legacy applications that can work only with 8.3 filenames.
In this case, an additional filename record and directory entry is added, but both 8.3 and long file name are linked and updated together, unlike a regular hard link.
Hard links have their own file metadata, so a change in file size or attributes under one hard link may not update the others until they are opened.
Windows uses hard links to support short (8.3) filenames in NTFS.
Because Microsoft disagreed with IBM on many important issues they eventually separated: OS/2 remained an IBM project and Microsoft worked to develop Windows NT and NTFS.