The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos (On Nature), were recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.

Copernicus discovered the mathematically yet unproven heliocentric solar system.

In his treatise, 'On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres' he postulated that the planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun, and that the earth revolved around its axis once every day.

Love and hate were considered principles of attraction and repulsion that alternately dominated the universe in a recurring cycle.

Empedocles presented a kind of biological theory of natural selection in an imaginative poem, On Nature.

Issac Newton - English mathematician and scientist; developed theory of matter; first to demonstrate the color components of white light with a prism and the reconstruction of these colors into white light with a second prism; researched the optical characteristics of chemical substances; studied gravitation and motion; developed the law of gravitation.

Ole Christensen Roemer - Denmark; was the first to show that the velocity of light is finite.

His theory that the earth exerted a magnetic influence throughout the solar system was a precursor to the modern conception of gravity as an attracting force between masses.

Gilbert was among the first to divide substances into electrics (spar, glass, amber) and nonelectrics.

He also played an importqant role in the development of the Western or Sicilian school of Greek medicine.