John of Fordun wrote that Duncan’s wife fled Scotland, taking her children, including the future kings Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) and Donald III (Domnall Bán mac Donnchada, or Donalbane) with her.

Loarn was supposedly the brother of Fergus Mór, whom the descendants of Kenneth claimed as an ancestor.

The genealogy as it survives is apparently constructed by combining two distinct genealogies which are found attached to the The extent to which Gaelic kingship rested on agnatic (male line) descent can be seen in the case of Kenneth Mac Alpin’s daughter’s daughter’s son Congalach Cnogba.

(…) In 1052, Macbeth was involved indirectly in the strife in the Kingdom of England between Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Edward the Confessor when he received a number of Norman exiles from England in his court, perhaps becoming the first king of Scots to introduce feudalism to Scotland.

In 1054, Edward’s Earl of Northumbria, Siward, led a very large invasion of Scotland.

A second son, Gille Coemgáin, was killed in 1032, burned in a house with fifty of his men.

Gille Coemgáin had been married to Gruoch with whom he had a son, the future king Lulach.

It is not clear whether Gruoch’s father was a son of King Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim) (d. Previous successions had involved strife between various , was not successful.

In 1039, Strathclyde was attacked by the Northumbrians, and a retaliatory raid led by Duncan against Durham in 1040 turned into a disaster.

In Ireland, the failure of the northern Uí Néill to support their southern kinsman Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill against Brian Bóruma, and the resulting end to the system of Uí Néill High Kingship appears to have been caused by political geography.

In northern Britain, the violent struggle between the various candidates for power seems to have removed Clann Áeda mac Cináeda from the contest, leaving only Clann Constantín mac Cináeda, in the person of Máel Coluim son of Cináed, to claim the kingship.

Congalach was the grandson of High King Flann Sinna of Clann Cholmáin and succeeded to the Uí Néill High Kingship in unusual circumstances on the death of his mother’s half-brother Donnchad Donn.