By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany.

However, Austria, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen and the western Rhineland had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: Noricum, Raetia, Germania Superior, and Germania Inferior.

Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7 (formerly G8), the G20, and the OECD.

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The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights.

In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.

During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward.

Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old.

Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm.

This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word "Teutons" also originates.

The Neander Valley was the location where the first ever non-modern human fossil was discovered; the new species of human was called the Neanderthal.

During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation.