The dietary specified the food to be served to each class of inmate (male/female, adult/children etc.) for each meal of the week, often including the exact amount to be provided. A small outbuilding, room, or room-fitting used as a toilet, where dry earth is used to cover and deodorise deposits.

After 1834, the Poor Law Commissioners devised a set of six slightly different standard dietaries from which each union could select the one it preferred, based on the local availability of various foodstuffs. (See also Privy, Water Closet, Water Closet, Lavatory, Laundry.) Diagram of an earth-closet. Ex officio is a Latin phrase meaning "by virtue of one's office".

Casuals — typically vagrants, tramps, or the "houseless poor" — did not need to be settled in the union.

They were required to perform a task of work such as stone-breaking or oakum-picking being allowed to leave.

Pauper's badge for Ampthill parish The local management committee for each Poor Law Union.

They were elected annually by the rate-payers in each parish in a Union.

(See also Infirmary.) An early form of disciplinary institution dating back to the 16th century.

In addition to its function of a gaol for the rogue, it might also include a workhouse for the poor, hospital for the old, and industrial school for the young.

Casuals were housed in a separate area of the workhouse, usually near the entrance, known as the casual ward.

A smaller room in a school used for accommodating infants, or where a lesson was given to a particular class or group of pupils.

(See also scattered homes, boarding out, children and education.) Aston Union Cottage Homes. From 1869, the workhouse master had to record the religious creed of each new inmate so that appropriate arrangements could be made in respect of their education (in the case of children), serious illness, or death.

Creed Register Form The fixed (and often basic and monotonous) diet prescribed for workhouse inmates.

In the autumn of 1830, agricultural labourers across southern England protested against low wages, expensive food, and the growing mechanization of farms.