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Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817 (2016), while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227 (2014).
Two languages are official and widely used today in Galicia: the native Galician, a Romance language closely related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, and the Spanish language, usually known locally as Castilian.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga (Portugal); this kingdom was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585.
In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740.
The Governor also presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body.
From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
The interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape; mountain ranges rise to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in the east and south.
The coastal areas are mostly an alternate series of rías and cliffs.
With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, The population is largely concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, and in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo, Pontevedra, and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela.
This resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship.