The study also analyzed the genetic backgrounds of people by type of surname.

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In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south.

These were reunited as Brazil six years later, then redivided from 1607 to 1613.

The census revealed the following self-identification: 1,382,543 persons identify as Pardo (Multiracial) (51.7%); 743,718 as Black (27.8%); 505,645 as White (18.9%); 35,785 as Asian (1.3%); and 7,563 as Amerindian(0.3%).

Salvador's population is the result of 500 years of miscegenation.

Salvador forms the heart of the During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day (November 1) 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints.

and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood.Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c.The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.Johan van Dorth administered the colony before his assassination, freeing its slaves.The city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on .John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful.