Even then, Dutch administrators were remarkably reluctant to promote the use of Dutch compared to other colonial regimes.

Dutch thus remained the language of a small elite: in 1940, only 2% of the total population could speak Dutch.

free video sex bukip abang indoniasia-90

High Malay was the official language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga, while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports of the archipelago.

Some linguists have argued that it was the more common Low Malay that formed the base of the Indonesian language.

In fact, they consciously prevented the language from being spread by refusing to provide education, especially in Dutch, to the native Indonesians so they would not come to see themselves as equals.

Moreover, the Dutch wished to prevent the Indonesians from elevating their perceived social status by taking on elements of Dutch culture.

The VOC adopted the Malay language as the administrative language of their trading outpost in the east.

Following the bankruptcy of the VOC, the Batavian Republic took control of the colony in 1799 and it was only then that education in and promotion of Dutch began in the colony.As of it, Mohammad Husni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian.After some criticism and protests, the use of Indonesian was allowed since the Volksraad sessions held in July 1938.The ease with which Indonesia eliminated the language of its former colonial power can perhaps be explained as much by Dutch policy as by Indonesian nationalism, though.In marked contrast to the French, Spanish and Portuguese, who pursued an assimilation colonial policy, or even the British, the Dutch did not attempt to spread their language among the indigenous population.These differences are due mainly to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian.