These components incorporate the disciplines of resource management, agricultural diversity, government and the impact of human actions on natural systems. Study of the record of human experience including important events; interactions of culture, race and ideas; the nature of prejudice; change and continuity in political systems; effects of technology; importance of global-international perspectives; and the integration of geography, economics and civics studies on major developments in the history of the Commonwealth, the United States and the world. Study of relationships among people, places and environments, of geographic tools and methods, characteristics of place, concept of region and physical processes. Study of United States constitutional democracy, its values and principles, study of the Constitution of the Commonwealth and government including the study of principles, operations and documents of government, the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, how governments work and international relations. Study of how individuals and societies choose to use resources to produce, distribute and consume goods and services. • Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes. The Pennsylvania Core Standards for Reading in Science and Technology and the Pennsylvania Core Standards for Writing in Science and Technology will be an appendix to the Commonwealth’s academic standards for Science and Technology upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin. Understanding the components of ecological systems and their interrelationships with social systems and technologies. • Identify and describe factors affecting metabolic function (e.g., temperature, acidity, hormones). Code § 16.4 (relating to gifted education plans); 22 Pa. • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. • Describe and differentiate between the roles of natural selection and genetic drift.

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The local assessment plan under § 4.52 (relating to local assessment system) must include a description of how the academic standards will be measured and how information from the assessments is used to assist students having difficulty meeting the academic standards. • Distinguish different reproductive patterns in living things (e.g., budding, spores, fission).

(e) School entities shall apply academic standards for students in all areas described under subsections (a) and (c). • Describe mutations’ effects on a trait’s expression.

A school entity shall make its induction plan available for public inspection and comment for a minimum of 28 days prior to approval of the plan by the school entity’s governing board and submission of the plan to the Department. • Describe how an environmental change can affect the survival of organisms and entire species.• Know that differences in individuals of the same species may give some advantage in surviving and reproducing.

(b) Upon expiration of its current strategic planning phase, each school entity shall submit to the Department for approval an induction plan every 6 years as required under § 49.16(a) (relating to approval of induction plans). • Explain birth defects from the standpoint of embryological development and/or changes in genetic makeup. • Identify adaptations that allow organisms to survive in their environment.

A school district shall make its gifted education plan available for public inspection and comment for a minimum of 28 days prior to approval of the plan by the school district’s board of directors. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (353096) and (332551) to (332553). Code § 12.41 (relating to student services); 22 Pa. • Describe the factors (e.g., isolation, differential reproduction) affecting gene frequency in a population over time and their consequences. • Examine human history by describing the progression from early hominids to modern humans.

(e) Upon expiration of its current strategic planning phase, each school district shall develop and implement a gifted education plan every 6 years as required under § 16.4 (relating to strategic plans). • Compare modern day descendents of extinct species and propose possible scientific accounts for their present appearance.

(d) A school entity’s curriculum shall be designed to provide students with planned instruction needed to attain these academic standards. • Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.

(c) School entities shall prepare students to attain academic standards in mathematics and English Language Arts in Appendix A-2 and incorporated here by reference and additional standards as may be adopted by the Board and promulgated as amendments to this chapter. Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.

A school entity shall make its student services plan available for public inspection and comment for a minimum of 28 days prior to approval of the plan by the school entity’s governing board. • Describe the role that fossils play in studying the past.

(c) Upon expiration of its current strategic planning phase, each school entity shall develop and implement a comprehensive and integrated K-12 program of student services based on the needs of its students every 6 years as provided in § 12.41(a) (relating to student services). • Recognize that populations of organisms can increase rapidly.

Upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, following implementation of a transition plan to be developed by the Department in collaboration with education stakeholders, academic standards will be based on the Pennsylvania Core Standards for Mathematics. Know that every organism has a set of genetic instructions that determines its inherited traits.