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When there is a change in voltage in the terminal bouton, voltage-gated calcium channels embedded in the membranes of these boutons become activated.
These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.
Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.
Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.
Once bounded with Ca2 , the vesicles dock and fuse with the presynaptic membrane, and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft by a process known as exocytosis.
The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to postsynaptic receptors embedded on the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron.
Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses.
In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.
As Na ions enter the cell, the membrane potential is further depolarized, and more voltage-gated sodium channels are activated.
Such a process is also known as a positive feedback loop.
An action potential can be divided into several sequential phases: threshold, rising phase, falling phase, undershoot phase, and recovery.