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A rebellion ensued and the Caliphate fragmented in various kingdoms—the Taifas.
Menocal finds that during this second Muslim period, that of the First Taifas--which lasted almost another hundred years--tolerance continued to exist. Menocal acknowledges that these newer invasions brought greater dogmatism and fanaticism.
The Castilian King Fernando III (1199—1252) granted the lands to the first Nasrid Sultan Mohammed I ibn Nasr (1194-1273) for his help in expelling the Almohads, but Granada would remain in vassal terms to Castile. We see then that the golden age of tolerance in the Muslim territories lasted around two centuries out of the seven.
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Combining the best of what Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures had to offer, al-Andalus and its successors influenced the rest of Europe in dramatic ways, from the death of liturgical Latin and the spread of secular poetry, to remarkable feats in architecture, science, and technology.
The glory of the Andalusian kingdoms endured until the Renaissance, when Christian monarchs forcibly converted, executed, or expelled non-Catholics from Spain. Fragmented are the arguments, fragmented are the contents, fragmented was the society Menocal strives to explore, and fragmented was also the tolerance that the author believes existed in Medieval Spain.
Reading her prose, although it is very clea This book is all about fragmentation.
Fragmented are the arguments, fragmented are the contents, fragmented was the society Menocal strives to explore, and fragmented was also the tolerance that the author believes existed in Medieval Spain.
No, this language, does not bind tightly her thesis. Her aim is to prove that tolerance existed amongst the Muslims, the Christians and the Jews over a long span of time--around seven centuries--, and that it was precisely this tolerance that created a fertile ground in which various cultural activities, mostly literary and architectural, grew and flourished.
She detects this tolerance first in the early period of the Muslim side, when the Umayyads controlled most of the peninsula and established their Caliphate in Cordoba.
In this wonderful book, we can finally explore the lost history whose legacy is still with us in countless ways. Selden Rose Professor of Spanish and Portuguese and head of the Whitney Humanities Center at Yale University. Fragmented remains then my Like/Dislike of the book.