free online dating sites in kuwait - Bukharan dating
The Persians (or Parsu, Parsua, Parsuash, Parsumash, from which the modern Fārs gained its name) were a later grouping of Indo-Europeans who migrated, probably along the River Oxus for part of its length, into Iran.
The three clans which turned up to aid Cyrus were the Maraphioi, Maspioi, and Pasargadoi, the latter being the noblest of all and the clan which included the Achaemenids themselves. Four of those were nomadic pastoralists, the Daoi, Mardoi (with a bad reputation as predatory folk), Dropikoi, and Sagartioi (who seem to have had a tribal homeland in Drangiana). The final three clans were sedentary cultivators, the Germanioi (clearly meaning Carmanians), Panthialaioi, and Derousiaioi.
With the Sagartioi residing in Drangiana, the Karmana in Carmania, and the remaining Parsua in Persis, a clear migratory path onto Iran can be discerned.
A large group also began to settle in southern Iran, in an area to the immediate east of the kingdom of Elam which became known as Persis.
The capital of the Parsua until 559 BC was Pasargadae in Fārs, in the heartland of ancient Persis.
The Parsua which were settling in southern Iran consisted of ten 'clans' (gene).
Noted later by Herodotus (and therefore given with the Greek forms of their names alone), these ten clans existed around the mid-sixth century, when the Parsua were fighting to end Median vassalage.
In fact, one of the names given by the Thiruvalangadu copperplate grant of the Chola family in India, Aryaman (shortly after around 1000 BC), is the source of the name 'Iran'.
This particular Aryaman was not the one who gave his name to that land, but either another (Persian) Indo-Iranian who also bore the name did just that, or the word originates in the name which the Indo-Iranians had for themselves - Aryans.
If Pathienas can be equated with the Panthialaioi then it would place another of the clans pretty far to the east of Persis, settling down along the migration route from Central Asia.
(Additional information by Jo Amdahl and Edward Dawson, from Empire of Gold: Foundations, Jo Amdahl, from The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, David W Anthony, from Central Asia: A Historical Overview, Edward A Allworth (Duke University Press, 1994), from The Paths of History, I M Diakonoff (Cambridge University Press, 1999), from Islamic Reference Desk, Emeri 'van' Donzel (Brill Academic Publishers, 1994), from The Persian Empire, J M Cook (1983), from The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia, Trevor Bryce, from The Histories, Herodotus (Penguin, 1996), from Zur historischen Topographie von Persien. Die Wege durch die Persische Wste, Wilhelm Tomaschek (1885), from Farāmarz, the Sistāni Hero: Texts and Traditions of the Farāmarznāme and the Persian Epic Cycle, Marjolijn van Zutphen, from External Links: Encyclopaedia Iranica, and Iranians & Turanians in the Avesta, and The Cities of the Medes (full text), Mordechai Cogan & Israel Eph'al (Eds, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and in reference to a further number of original and secondary sources included in the 'Persia and Eastwards' section of the Sources page.)The Parsua begin to enter Iran, probably by crossing the Iranian plateau to the north of the great central deserts (through Hyrcania, probably skirting to the north of neighbouring Parthia) but also by working round to the south of the deserts.
Although this was originally an indigenous culture, it was almost certainly subject to a slow 'invasion' of Indo-European tribes in much the same way as the Pelasgians of Greece were largely subsumed by the Mycenaeans.